An hour a day for deliberate learning?

Edited excerpt from Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, and Oprah Winfrey All Use the 5-Hour Rule by Michael Simmons:

In the article Malcolm Gladwell Got Us Wrong, the researchers behind the 10,000-Hour Rule set the record straight: Different fields require different amounts of deliberate practice in order for someone to become world-class. If 10,000 hours isn’t an absolute rule that applies across fields, what does it really take to become world class in the world of work?

Many leaders, despite being extremely busy, have set aside at least an hour a day (or five hours a week) over their entire career for activities that could be classified as deliberate practice or learning. I call this phenomenon the five-hour rule. For the leaders I tracked, the five-hour rule often fell into three buckets: reading, reflection, and experimentation.

We need to move beyond the cliché, “Lifelong learning is good,” and think more deeply about the minimum amount of learning the average person should do per day to have a sustainable and successful career.

Just as we have minimum recommended dosages of vitamins and steps per day and of aerobic exercise for leading a healthy life physically, we should be more rigorous about how we as an information society think about the minimum doses of deliberate learning for leading a healthy life economically.

Notes:
(1) Thank you Karen Miller Jackson for the tip.
(2) On experimentation as a learning tool: We often don’t experiment enough because we gravitate to things we are familiar with and which we believe have a high probability of success. If we view new tasks, jobs and experiences as experiments, we can drop our requirement that they should be familiar, and worry less that they’ll be unsuccessful.
(3) In the full article, Michael Simmons shows that many famously successful people are voracious readers of books. What is it about reading books that is more valuable than reading articles online (including this blog🙂 )?
(4) Cf. (i) How truly great entrepreneurs manage their time and (ii) How to clear time for deep thinking.

How to listen when you disagree

Edited excerpt from How To Listen When You Disagree: A Lesson From The Republican National Convention by Benjamin Mathes:

If there’s one question I get asked more than any other, it’s this: How do I listen to someone when I disagree with them?

It takes a lot of forgiveness, compassion, patience, and courage to listen in the face of disagreement. I could write pages on each of these, but let’s start with the one thing that makes them possible: We must work to hear the person, not just the opinion. My friend Agape says it like this: “Hear the biography, not the ideology.”

When someone has a point of view we find difficult to understand, disagreeable, or even offensive, we must look to the set of circumstances that person has experienced that resulted in that point of view. When you find yourself in disagreement, just ask one question:

“Will you tell me your story? I’d love to know how you came to this point of view.”

Notes:
(1) This is another case where trying to “listen with intent to agree” won’t work. Rather, listen for its own sake.
(2) Cf. (i) How to listen without judging — a guide for managers and (ii) When you’re given advice, here’s how to listen with an open mind.

Surprise, surprise — commuting by car makes you heavier

Edited excerpt from One hour of driving a day = 2.3kg more weight and 1.5cm wider waist, study reveals:

People who drive an hour or more a day are 2.3kg heavier and 1.5cm wider around the waist compared to people who spend 15 minutes or less in their cars, according to a research paper. In “Adverse associations of car time with markers of cardio-metabolic risk”, published in the Preventive Medicine journal, Professor Takemi Sugiyama from the Australian Catholic University’s Institute of Health and Ageing also found that men are more likely than women to put on weight due to time spent behind the wheel.

Professor Sugiyama, an expert on the nexus between health and urban design, concluded “prolonged time spent sitting in cars, in particular over 1 h/day, was associated with higher total and central adiposity and a more-adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile.”

Notes:
(1) How to extract some redeeming value from your car commute: Think about your goals each day on the way to work.
(2) Possible antidote to excessive sitting time: Take a walk at 3pm each day.
(3) Another health tip, less obvious: Stop venting and complaining.

Ask positive questions

Edited excerpt from What’s the recipe for effective communication? by Emma Chilvers:

Start a meeting by asking people positive questions. This encourages people to share, contribute and focus.

The questions could be simple such as: What has gone well for you the last week? Can you name someone who has helped you achieve things? What are you looking forward to most this week?

Too often, when we review projects and performance we discuss how we could improve things next time, without pausing for a moment to say what went well and well done.

Starting off on a positive note primes the brain to adopt a more open attitude towards the forthcoming discussion – and it gets all of the voices in the room ready to contribute at the same time.

What’s more, recognising and celebrating good work makes people feed valued, that they matter; it boosts their energy levels, reconnects them to their purpose in the company and can increase their well-being and productivity.

Notes:
(1) This advice is widely applicable, not just to meetings. For example, you can ask individuals “What are you most excited about?”, “What’s working best in your area right now?”, or “Who are you most enjoying working with?”. And you can help people to feel happier and more motivated about their work by asking them this question.
(2) Cf. (i) Ideas spread inside a company due to positive energy; 8 ways to increase it, (ii) Smile.
(3) “Recognising and celebrating good work makes people feed valued”. See: (i) Why celebrating wins is so hard, but so important, and (ii) Is this the way to celebrate wins?

Provide what your users really want

Edited excerpt from How Will Tech Platforms Compete in the 21st Century? by Joe Edelman:

In the next decade, platforms will compete over alignment with their users’ human values. At present, all the platforms are terrible at this. Facebook, Apple, and Google — from their notification screens to their feeds — ignore their users’ will and intent, ignore their users’ values, and abuse users by directing their attention towards advertising or towards greater platform engagement.

The values revolution will be as big as the design revolution. There will be an Apple of values. And there will also be new players, new interface concepts, new types of careers in tech. The values revolution will begin when users start to see the possibility of values-aligned tech, and to discover that their lives are warped by tech with values contrary to their own.

Notes:
(1) Cf. How tech products misframe our choices, and product managers should do better.
(2) Cf. What happens when you mistake user engagement for customer success.

Why you shouldn’t begin your conference presentation by talking about yourself

Excerpt from An Open Letter To Speakers by Scott Berkun:

Drop your bio introduction. If you are on a stage the organizers have granted you more credibility than nearly anyone else at the event. And 95% of the time your bio is on the website or in the program. The audience can get it if they want it, right there, on their phone, at any time. If you must, 30 seconds is enough time to say your name, profession, and why you care about the topic. Anything more is likely wasting their time.

Notes:
(1) Scott writes elsewhere in the article “Most speakers forget they’re providing a service to the audience, not to themselves.” This is why providing a detailed bio at the beginning of your talk is a mistake.
(2) For two other things to remember when starting a presentation, see How NOT to start a presentation and A talk or presentation is an opportunity to be generous.

Hire a Director of Research for your product team

Edited excerpt from How We Accidentally Invented Job Stories by Paul Adams, VP Product at Intercom:

We place a huge emphasis on research. We hire people with direct research experience, and everyone on the product team talks directly to customers. We also hired a Director of Research much earlier than most other startups.

While it’s obvious you should be talking to customers frequently to try and understand their needs, it’s not obvious what the best tool to do that is. So we created our own process, Job Stories, based on the Jobs-to-be-Done (JTBD) framework. This ensures the team is research driven, that team members understand their problem so well that they can capture it in a concise format, and that the summary of the problem is actionable for all the design and engineering team.

Notes:
(1) Since the goal of research is to improve your product, the Director of Research should report to the VP Product.
(2) One of the key insights here is that the entire product team should be talking to customers, but often they don’t know how to, or they don’t have clear enough goals for their conversations. The Director of Research can set goals and a format for these calls.
(3) For more on Job Stories, see Paul’s full article, and also Why product managers should frame every product task as a Job To Be Done.

Three approaches to pricing

Edited excerpt from There Are Only 3 Pricing Strategies For Your Startup by Tomasz Tunguz:

Maximization (Revenue Growth) – maximize revenue growth in the short term. Startups should pursue maximization when there are no clear differences in customer segments’ willingness to pay, and when the optimal short term and long term prices are equal.

Penetration (Market Share) – price the product at a low price to win dominant market share. Then move up-market after developing broad adoption.

Skimming (Profit Maximization) – start with a high price and systematically broaden the product offering to address more of the customer base at lower prices. Skimming is widespread in consumer hardware. Apple sells the latest iPhones at the highest prices, and repackages older models at lower prices to address different customer segments.

Notes:
(1) Tomasz adds: “Startup should be explicit. Decide which strategy to pursue, and align sales, marketing, product and engineering efforts along those lines.”
(2) Cf. How to price your product based on quality versus the competition and How to set the price for your product.

Skift’s approach to work-life balance

Edited excerpt from How We Got off the Addiction to Venture Capital and Created Our Own Way to Profits by Rafat Ali:

We dedicated ourselves to making the lives of our team better. That may sound simple, but with so many constituencies pulling at you as a founder, especially if large amounts of venture capital is part of the equation, it is the first thing to fall off in the list of priorities. It meant evaluating every next step and opportunity on how it would affect the professional and personal lives of our people. We have fully embraced the idea of building a humane company.

We chart our own path, we define our own scale, we define our own intensity of work. We work hard during the hours of 8 am to 6 pm on weekdays, and that’s it. We don’t want people in office after 6 pm, we don’t want people working weekends, and I am proud to say in our 3.5 years of existence, we have *never* had to, as a team, come to the office on a weekend.

We are building a humane company that wants the best out of people in the hours they give to the company, and build a more balanced life outside of it.

Notes:
(1) See also: (i) How many hours per week should you work to maximize your impact? and (ii) Is this the key to work-life balance?
(2) An opposing viewpoint: Does Amazon prove that greatness and work-life balance are incompatible?
(3) Which do you find more convincing?

Slashing your Facebook usage may reduce your anxiety about work

Edited excerpt from The reason millennials aren’t happy at work by Keith Breene:

Much of the stress and anxiety reported by twenty-somethings is caused by ruthless comparison with peers. Emerson Csorba, director of the consultancy Gen Y, reported one millennial describing the challenge like this: “If we are not doing something exceptional or don’t feel important and fulfilled for what we are doing, we have a hard time.”

Where is the pressure coming from? With millennials more connected than any previous generation, opportunities to compare levels of success are ubiquitous, creating anxiety and insecurity. The accomplishments of peers, shown on social media, are a constant prompt to examine millennials’ own successes or failures. The problem is made much worse by the fact that only positive achievements are posted – you only ever see the good stuff.

Even though everyone knows that social media is a kind of PR feed of people’s lives, when you spend so much time online, these messages can easily become overpowering.

Notes:
(1) Cf. When you want a break from work, should you log into Facebook?
(2) Cf. Can you achieve great things if you’re a regular Facebook or Twitter user?

How to combat Powerpoint fatigue

Edited excerpt from Seven Secrets for Public Speaking Success by Dr. Nick Morgan:

Try turning off the slideware. You are probably preparing slides as a primary way to get ready for your presentation. Here’s a thought: don’t use slides as wallpaper, visible all the time. Try using them sparingly, only when you have a compelling image, only when it really helps your speech. What to do the rest of the time? Put in a black slide, so that the audience can focus on you, and not split its attention between screen and speaker.

Notes:
(1) Has anyone tried this? Does it work?
(2) Cf. If you must use Powerpoint…
(3) One of the advantages of walking meetings is that neither party can use slides. See: (i) Walking meetings and (ii) Two benefits of walking meetings.

Show up on time every day at 8:30am

Edited excerpt from eShares 101 by Henry Ward:

There are many similarities between eShares and a professional sports team. For starters, our entire company meets everyday at 8:30am to begin the day together. Everyone — engineering, sales, services, office management. Nobody is exempt. In sports, even the goalie, who may have a completely different practice schedule from the rest of the team, still meets at the same time to warm up.

Teams meet to solve problems, brainstorm ideas, share work, or just catch up. On Tuesdays and Thursdays, the whole company meets for an hour-long Show & Tell. This is an opportunity for everyone to share, debate, and participate in the bleeding edge of eShares’s progress and decision making.

Most people think it’s crazy that we make everyone be in the office at 8:30am every morning. We think it is crazy not to. The New England Patriots would never tell players, “Show up for practice when it is convenient.” If you want to be the best in the world at what you do, start every day together.

Notes:
(1) I have mixed feelings about this, perhaps because I’m an introvert. I started every day alone thinking about Seeking Alpha’s goals and the most important tasks for the day, and only after that went to the office. The last thing I wanted to do was start every day with a group meeting — uugh! (I later read about the importance of clearing time for deep thinking, and that starting your day alone, quietly thinking about your goals, leads to greater clarity, motivation, success and happiness.)
(2) But I suspect my absence first thing in the morning had an impact on team discipline and the atmosphere in the Seeking Alpha office. Should I have scheduled my “alone time” early enough to arrive at 8.30am every morning? Should I have swallowed my aversion to group meetings, and done one every Tuesday and Thursday morning, as Henry Ward advocates?
(3) To what extent is how you want to start your day a function of personality, and to what extent are there objective best practices?

Build for your best customers

Edited excerpt from My 8 Rules Of Great Products by Mitchell Harper:

Build for your best customers. Simply put, this means you give a higher weighting to product feedback from your best customers — the ones who spend the most money with you over time.

This leads you to build additional products (and improve existing ones) for your best customers, who are much more likely to pay more for those new and improved products, thus helping grow your revenue faster with fewer customers and less customer support.

Not all customer feedback should be treated equally. If one customer pays you $2,000 a month and another pays you $20 a month, the feedback from the $2,000 a month customer is actually more valuable if you use it in your marketing and product strategy to attract more customers like them and/or if it gets them to spend more money with you via upgrades or additional products.

It doesn’t take 10x the effort to get a $2,000/month customer as it does to get a $20/month customer. It probably takes 2–3x the effort but gives you 10x the revenue.

Notes:
(1) Cf. Best practices in getting user feedback on your product.
(2) Cf. The contrarian view: With freemium, it’s easier to start with the paid product.

Stop beating yourself up

Edited excerpt from What’s the secret to success? Be nicer to yourself by Keith Breene:

Stanford researcher Emma Seppälä says that when she looked at the research she found the evidence overwhelmingly showed that if you look after your well-being first, you will do better in your job.

The key, Seppälä says, is being kinder to yourself. “Research shows that self-criticism is basically self-sabotage, whereas self-compassion – treating yourself with the understanding, mindfulness and kindness with which you would treat a friend – leads to far greater resilience, productivity and well-being.”

In times of failure or challenge, noticing your self-talk can help you replace it with self-compassion. Instead of saying things like, “I’m such an idiot!” you might say, “I had a moment of absentmindedness and that’s okay.”

Notes:
(1) From my personal experience, I think there are two distinct elements to debilitating self-criticism: first, a tendency to devote too much thought and attention to negative outcomes or events; and second, what Emma Seppälä calls your “self-talk” about those items.
(2) On “a tendency to devote too much thought and attention to negative outcomes or events”, see (i) Don’t try to learn from failure and (ii) You can train yourself to think positively.
(3) On “what Emma Seppälä calls your “self-talk” about those items”, cf. How to view rejection.

To make meetings more effective, learn to listen

Edited excerpt from What’s the recipe for effective communication? by Emma Chilvers:

In her work Time to Think, Nancy Kline advocates that everyone must have the chance to think and speak uninterrupted. This works wonders in terms of eliciting the best thinking from the whole group. Giving everyone equal voice, thinking time and the chance to contribute can transform the effectiveness of communication in a meeting.

Nancy Kline also found that rather than listening in meetings, people spend the majority of their time either working out what they are going to say or defending what they are saying and that a verbal interruption has the similar impact on thinking as a physical fight. It is no surprise that without strong agreements on giving equal voice and listening, the quality of the thinking goes down in teams.

Notes:
(1) I’m not a fan of meetings, particularly if the goal is to elicit creative thinking. See Group brainstorming doesn’t lead to creativity; this does and The optimal number of people in a meeting is…
(2) So for me, the valuable insight here is that listening transforms communication and makes people feel more secure. Cf. (i) How to be a better listener, (ii) When you’re given advice, here’s how to listen with an open mind, and (iii) How to listen without judging — a guide for managers.

Why early stage startups should start narrow

Excerpt from Building Products by Julie Zhou:

If you are a start-up founder, your path will be easier if you go after a problem for a narrowly-defined audience, and then expand to broader audiences after you have some initial traction.

From an email I sent to a startup founder:

To maximize your chances of success, focus on a single vertical, and go deep into it.  There are two reasons for this:

1. If you focus on a single vertical, it’s much easier to understand the customers’ Job To Be Done, the solutions they currently use, how you can help them the most, and then to build a product that addresses their needs.

2. As a small startup, you don’t have the resources to compete with broader platforms; but you can win by specialized domain customization, and expand from there.

Choosing a vertical is a question of research, and should not involve any product development. Sit with customers in each vertical you’re considering. By asking them questions about their Job To Be Done you’ll be able to reach a conclusion about which vertical you can add most value in. Then focus all your effort on that vertical.

First principles for startup founders (and product managers)

Edited excerpt from Building Products by Julie Zhou:

1. A product succeeds because it solves a problem for people. This sounds very basic, but it is the single most important thing to understand about building good products.

2. The first step in building something new is understanding what problem you want to solve, and for whom. This should be crystal clear before you start thinking about any solutions.

3. The second question you should ask yourself is “why is this particular problem worth solving?”

4. If the audience you are building for is narrowly defined (and one that you are a part of), then you may be able to rely on your intuition to guide your product decision-making. If not, then you should rely on research and data to inform your decisions.

5. The problem you’re trying to solve should be easy to communicate in a sentence or two and resonate with someone from your target audience. If not, consider that a big red flag.

Notes:
(1) The most common error I’ve seen among seed-stage startups is that they devote insufficient time to understanding the user’s problem before thinking about their proposed solution to it. The Job To Be Done framework prevents that error, because it forces you to research and define the user’s “Job To Be Done” in isolation from your proposed solution.
(2) “If the audience you are building for is narrowly defined (and one that you are a part of), then you may be able to rely on your intuition to guide your product decision-making.” See: The benefits and risks of founding a startup to satisfy a personal need.
(3) Cf. (i) What problem are you solving?, (ii) Four simple questions to help you get product-market fit, (iii) Documenting your product-market fit hypotheses.

Why startups should forget vitamins and painkillers, and focus on the Job To Be Done

Edited excerpt from Does your startup solve a problem? Vitamin or painkiller? by Don Dodge:

One of the questions I ask entrepreneurs when evaluating start-ups is “Is your product a vitamin (nice to have) or a painkiller (got to have it)? Of course everyone wants to think their product is a “must have” painkiller, but very few are.

Many products fall into the vitamin category. Things like productivity tools, content aggregators, mashups, utilities, collaboration applications, measurement and monitoring tools, in fact anything that is a tool, development or otherwise, is by definition a vitamin.

Painkiller products are products that solve for a specific pain point. Sometimes the pain is measurable in terms of ROI, winning sales that could not be won before, or satisfying a regulatory requirement.

There is another set of products that are vitamins (nice to have) until you feel the pain. Then they become painkillers (got to have it). There are actually lots of products that fall into this category.

Notes:
(1) On vitamins versus painkillers, see also Building a valuable product — a checklist of questions to answer and How to sell your product if it’s a “nice to have”, not a “must have”.
(2) My personal viewpoint: the categorization of products into vitamins and painkillers is flawed and unhelpful. Note that (i) great businesses have been built from “vitamins” (think media and entertainment), (ii) helping a company to increase its revenues is, absurdly, a vitamin, and (iii) the categories are unstable — products can transition from vitamin to painkiller depending on the context and user.
(3) For me, the Job To Be Done framework is far more helpful. The right questions to ask are: What “job” is the user / customer looking to get done (user need)? How valuable is getting that job done for the person (willingness to pay)? How many people have that job (market size)? How well does your product help the person get the job done relative to the alternatives (competitive advantage)?
(4) See: A brief summary of Job To Be Done, with 3 takeaways for product managers.

Don’t fire people on a Friday

Edited excerpt from Firing Someone for the First Time: Top Entrepreneurs Share Their Wisdom by Jessica Stillman:

Ethan Appleby, founder and CEO of Vango, recommends that you keep the conversation really short. Don’t talk too much, just get right to the point. Let them ask questions, but keep emotions out of it. And don’t do it on Friday, so you can see if the morale of the team is OK, and people can get their questions answered.

Notes:
(1) Cf. Four principles for how to fire someone correctly.
(2) See also: Exit interviews.

Why you should think about your goals each day on the way to work

Edited excerpt from Can’t Stand Your Commute? It’s All in Your Head by Chana R. Schoenberger:

People who make a conscious effort while commuting to think about what they need to do that day and how it fits into their longer-term plans feel more satisfied at work and less exhausted emotionally, according to a new Harvard Business School working paper.

They also have happier commutes.

The researchers call this way of thinking “goal-directed prospection,” and in their paper they detail how it can offset the strain of commuting.

Notes:
(1) Cf. What’s your “simple scoreboard”?
(2) Cf. How to choose the one metric that matters.

When you want a break from work, should you log into Facebook?

Edited excerpt from Is Facebook Making Us Lonely? by Stephen Marche:

Scanning your friends’ status updates and updating the world on your own activities via your wall — what [Carnegie Mellon researcher] Moira Burke calls “passive consumption” and “broadcasting” — correlates to feelings of disconnectedness. It’s a lonely business, wandering the labyrinths of our friends’ and pseudo-friends’ projected identities, trying to figure out what part of ourselves we ought to project, who will listen, and what they will hear.

Passive consumption of Facebook also correlates to a marginal increase in depression. If two women each talk to their friends the same amount of time, but one of them spends more time reading about friends on Facebook as well, the one reading tends to grow slightly more depressed.

In one experiment, John Cacioppo [director of the Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience at the University of Chicago] looked for a connection between the loneliness of subjects and the relative frequency of their interactions via Facebook, chat rooms, online games, dating sites, and face-to-face contact. The results were unequivocal. The greater the proportion of face-to-face interactions, the less lonely you are. So if social media let you organize a game of football among your friends, that’s healthy. If you turn to social media instead of playing football, however, that’s unhealthy.

Notes:
(1) John Cacioppo argues that Facebook isn’t necessarily negative if you use it to increase the frequency of your face-to-face interactions with friends and family. However, I think this underestimates the addictiveness of Facebook as a product. Even if you have an agenda for how you want to use Facebook, you’re battling the company’s product resources and expertise which are deployed to maximize the time spent per user on Facebook (because that drives Facebook’s monetization). So when you log into Facebook, even to reach out to a friend, Facebook lures you into “passive consumption”. Moira Burke found that this leads to increases in disconnectedness and depression. It also crowds out face-to-face interactions.
(2) A better strategy: If you want a break from what you’re working on, go chat with a real human being. Or take a walk.
(3) Cf. Can you achieve great things if you’re a regular Facebook or Twitter user?

How to improve your mood at work and make other people happier too

Edited excerpt from FOMO: This Is The Best Way To Overcome Fear Of Missing Out by Eric Barker:

The more a person is inclined to gratitude, the less likely he or she is to be depressed, anxious, lonely, envious, or neurotic.

Try a simple experiment: Look around. What good things might you be taking for granted? Home? Family? Friends? Now take a couple seconds to imagine those were taken away from you. How would you feel? Bad things happen to us randomly, right? So to some degree, you are lucky to have what you do.

Does this exercise sound silly? Research shows it works. Mentally subtracting cherished moments from your life makes you appreciate them more, makes you grateful and makes you happier.

Notes:
(1) If you then express that gratitude by thanking people, it also improves relationships. See “Don’t take one another for granted” in What happens if you apply marriage advice to work relationships?
(2) Cf. Genuine praise.
(3) Cf. You can train yourself to think positively.

The best time-saver ever

A few months ago, I quoted Mark Suster’s advice about How to maximize your chance of getting a meeting or call with someone. In the notes to that post, I recommended that when you’re trying to fix a meeting with someone,

Suggest at least three possible times in your initial email. This maximizes the chance that one of them will be convenient, and they’ll be able to say “yes” without further iteration.

I personally try to implement the best practices I write about, and over the last few months I’ve consistently adopted that recommendation.

I can honestly say that of all the best practices I’ve written about in A Founder’s Notebook, that simple recommendation has saved me more time and hassle than any other.

Two types of product quality; are they both necessary?

Edited excerpt from The Tyranny of the Minimum Viable Product by Jon H. Pittman:

In his 1974 classic of philosophical fiction, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, Robert Pirsig describes two kinds of quality:

1. Classic quality — based on rational analysis, decomposition into parts and their relationships, concerned with details, inner workings, and mechanics.

2. Romantic quality — understanding the overall gestalt or feel, looking at the whole rather than the parts, relating to context, emotion, and being in the moment.

Although this is a gross over-generalization, engineers and business people tend to be educated to think about classic quality and classic quality is the mental model they apply to their work. Designers and artists tend to live more in the realm of romantic quality and that is the mental model they apply to their work.

What we often refer to as the “user experience” is the intersection of classic and romantic quality. If we overweight classic quality at the expense of romantic quality, we end up with a poor user experience.

Notes:
(1) As a devotee of the Job To Be Done framework, I’m not sure how to think about this. The best product is the one which enables me to get my “job” done most efficiently and pleasurably. Perhaps “classic quality” = efficiently, and “romantic quality” = pleasurably?
(2) Enabling people to get their job done efficiently is usually enough. (Think Craig’s List.) However, if you want your customers to love your product, is “romantic quality” necessary?
(3) Cf. (i) Don’t be satisfied with sales, seek love, and (ii) Is your product liked or loved? Here’s how to tell.

How to stop your phone from distracting you and wasting your life

From TimeWellSpent.io, “a community of design thinkers, philosophers, social scientists, entrepreneurs and technologists who care about having technology designed to help us live free and fulfilled lives”:

1. Create a tools-only home screen. Limit your home screen to the top 4-6 tools you use frequently to get things done. Move all other apps off the first page and into folders.

2. Open other apps by typing. Typing filters out unconscious choices while keeping conscious ones. Open apps by typing their name.

3. Keep only two pages of apps. With six pages of apps, we find ourselves swiping back and forth through them mindlessly. Keep to two pages, the first with tools and the other with folders.

4. Turn off notifications, except from people. Only get notifications when people want your attention, not businesses or machines.

5. Keep the M&M’s, but hide the wrappers. Colorful icons are designed to trigger us to use apps unconsciously. Put these on the second or third page inside folders, and open them by typing instead.

6. Stop leaky interactions. Set your Alarm or Camera without unlocking your phone so you get kicked out automaticaly afterwards. Swipe up on the lock screen to quickly access.

7. Reduce phantom buzzes with custom vibrations. Create your own unambiguous vibration pattern to distinguish between when people need you vs. a machine. (Go to Settings > Notifications > Messages > Sounds > Vibration > Create New)

8. Buy a travel alarm clock and charge outside the bedroom. Waking up to check our phone sets our day off to a bad start. Get a separate alarm clock and leave your phone outside to charge.

9. Know your bottomless bowls and slot machines. Know which apps are bottomless bowls (trapdoors) and slot machines (constant checking) for you. Move them off the first page of apps.

Notes:
(1) How convinced are you by these suggestions?
(2) What have you tried which has worked?
(3) An alternative view: “Ultimately, I don’t think we’re going to be able to either liberate or self-regulate our way out of mental fragmentation” — Matthew Crawford.

How tech products misframe our choices, and product managers should do better

Edited excerpt from How Technology Hijacks People’s Minds — from a Magician and Google’s Design Ethicist by Tristan Harris:

If you control the menu, you control the choices. Magicians give people the illusion of free choice while architecting the menu so that they win, no matter what you choose. And this is exactly what product designers do to your mind.

When people are given a menu of choices, they rarely ask: “What’s not on the menu?”, “Why am I being given these options and not others?”, “Do I know the menu provider’s goals?”, and “Is this menu empowering for my original need, or are the choices actually a distraction?”.

The most empowering menu is different than the menu that has the most choices. But when we blindly surrender to the menus we’re given, it’s easy to lose track of the difference.

When we wake up in the morning and turn our phone over to see a list of notifications — it frames the experience of “waking up in the morning” around a menu of “all the things I’ve missed since yesterday.” By shaping the menus we pick from, technology hijacks the way we perceive our choices and replaces them with new ones.

But the closer we pay attention to the options we’re given, the more we’ll notice when they don’t actually align with our true needs.

Notes:
(1) Perhaps the Job To Be Done framework is the antidote to this, because it insists that products should be driven by genuine user needs. If a product manager asked “When I wake up in the morning, what do I most want to do? What is most important to me? What is most life enriching?”, we’d probably have a different phone experience.
(2) Are tech products becoming a growing obstacle to productivity, relationships, meaning and fulfillment? See: (i) Can you achieve great things if you’re a regular Facebook or Twitter user?, (ii) Is group chat a constant distraction for your employees? and (iii) If you want to get more done, stop doing these things.

Fact-based persuasion takes time

Edited excerpt from Facing Up To The Fanatics by Douglas Murray:

Afterwards I found myself reflecting on how people’s minds change. It never does happen just there and then, with someone saying, “Yes — I see, I was quite wrong and you’ve changed my mind.” But over time the bits of your own argument that have become unsupportable simply crumble away, usually without you even acknowledging it.

Notes:
(1) Douglas Murray argues here that people are persuaded by facts, but it takes time. Contrast this with the evidence that people aren’t convinced by facts at all.
(2) Perhaps people are more convinced by stories than facts. Particularly if you set things up so they complete the story themselves.
(3) Cf. How to make your talk or presentation gripping and memorable.

The first goal for a startup isn’t growth

Edited excerpt from Before Growth by Sam Altman:

In the first few weeks of a startup’s life, the founders really need to figure out what they’re doing and why. Then they need to build a product some users really love. Only after that they should focus on growth above all else.

I think the right initial metric is “do any users love our product so much they spontaneously tell other people to use it?” Until that’s a “yes”, founders are generally better off focusing on this instead of a growth target.

Notes:
(1) You can measure “do any users love our product so much they spontaneously tell other people to use it?” with net promotor score — see How to use net promotor score surveys to improve your product and Net promotor score — how to set up the survey.
(2) Cf. Is this the right goal for seed-stage startups?
(3) Re. “only after that should they focus on growth”: see The most fatal mistake to avoid as a startup.

Lessons from Trump: the most powerful marketing leaves room for imagination

Edited excerpt from Trump VS Bush: Persuasion Wars by Scott Adams (author of Dilbert):

Hypnosis rule #1 is that you leave out the details and allow people to fill in the blanks with their own imagination. That’s why, for example, my comic characters have no last names while working in a nameless company for a nameless boss in a nameless location. I don’t want a reader in France to think Dilbert is an American and therefore of little interest. I want the French reader, the Elbonian, and the American to look at the Dilbert characters and say some version of “That character is me!” In order to achieve that effect, I intentionally omit details that would knock you off the track. For example, the minute I give Dilbert a last name it would over-specify his ethnic origins and give folks a reason to feel less connected.

A golden rule in sales is “Don’t sell past the close.” That means that once your customer says yes, you stop talking about the product because you might accidentally say something that stops the sale. You never add detail when the customer is already sold. The less you say, the more likely the customer (who is already sold) will continue talking himself into loving the decision because people like to think they are smart.

Now review Trump’s empty sentence: We need to take America back. From whom? Notice the intentional lack of detail? In this case, the lack of detail is the powerful part of the sentence. See how the open-ended suggestion works? Every voter is free to fill in the topic of their own greatest fear. Trump invites you to hypnotize yourself to finish the thought. And you do.

Notes:
(1) Thank you Zach Abramowitz, founder and CEO of ReplyAll, for the article recommendation.
(2) The biggest mistake you can make in marketing is to add details which clash with your potential customer’s sense of who they are. See If you want to persuade someone with facts, steer clear of identity and ideology.
(3) I’ve expanded this category from Marketing and PR to Marketing, PR and Persuasion. The full list of posts is in Best practices for startups — a list by topic.

If you want to persuade someone with facts, steer clear of identity and ideology

Edited excerpt from I Don’t Want To Be Right by Maria Konnikova:

Until recently, attempts to correct false beliefs haven’t had much success. Brendan Nyhan, a professor of political science at Dartmouth, published the results of a three year study whose goal was to test whether facts, science, emotions, or stories could make people change their minds. The result was dramatic: none of the interventions worked.

When there’s no immediate threat to our understanding of the world, we change our beliefs. It’s when that change contradicts something we’ve long held as important that problems occur. If information doesn’t square with someone’s prior beliefs, he discards the beliefs if they’re weak and discards the information if the beliefs are strong.

False beliefs, it turns out, have little to do with one’s stated political affiliations and far more to do with self-identity: What kind of person am I, and what kind of person do I want to be? All ideologies are similarly affected.

Facts and evidence may not be the answer everyone thinks they are: they simply aren’t that effective, given how selectively they are processed and interpreted. Instead, why not focus on presenting issues in a way keeps broader notions out of it—messages that are not political, not ideological, not in any way a reflection of who you are?

Notes:
(1) Perhaps stories are more persuasive than facts. See: How to make your talk or presentation gripping and memorable.
(2) And perhaps emotions are more persuasive than facts. See: By the end of your talk or presentation, you should be talking love.

Why optimization alone can’t create great products or companies

Edited excerpt from Before Growth by Sam Altman:

Startups that don’t first figure out a product some users love also seem to rarely develop the sense of mission that the best companies have.

Notes:
(1) There’s so much literature about optimization and speed of iteration, it’s possible to forget that great companies are built from truly great products.
(2) Great product teams have three skills sets: user centricity — focus on a Job To Be Done that is important to a large number of people; vision — for a product which addresses that Job To Be Done in a way that users love; and speed — commitment to rapid testing, optimization and feedback loops.
(3) Cf. (i) The three steps to building a great company, and why most startups fail on the first step, (ii) Cosmetic changes to your product won’t fix low user engagement and retention and (iii) Don’t be satisfied with sales, seek love.

To improve your product process, try the 25 minute design sprint

Edited excerpt from The 25-Minute Design Sprint by Chris Thelwell:

The 25 minute design sprint forces designers to work quickly and focus on what they can learn rather than what they can produce. It’s based on the Pomodoro Technique, which uses blocks of 25 minutes followed by five minute breaks to focus attention on getting something done. It can be used continuously throughout a project, breaking all parts of the design work into 25 minute slices, or stopped when you feel you are getting somewhere and have clear direction.

The Process
1. Using a timer, set up 25 minutes for the first sprint.
2. Each designer works individually for 25 minutes to create and explore ideas, ideally using sketching first. Include at least 10 minutes of researching and gaining inspiration.
3. When the 25 minutes ends, everyone stops what they are working on. (Don’t give in to “I just need another five minutes”.)
4. The whole team comes together to discuss and share their ideas.
5. The team decides if each designer should persevere (develop their ideas) or pivot (try something different) in the next sprint.
6. Take a five minute break from work.
7. The sprint process then starts over again.

Notes:
(1) Here’s Wikipedia on the Pomodoro Technique.
(2) A design sprint can only succeed with clarity about the Job To Be Done. So go over the Job Outline with the team before you start the sprint, and ensure everyone has answers to the Five questions to ensure product designers focus on the Job To Be Done.
(3) See also: Why product managers should frame every product task as a Job To Be Done.

Seven questions to uncover user goals and needs

Edited excerpt from The Fast (and Easy) Way to Uncover User Needs by Joe Natolli:

Asking this set of questions across even a small pool of people — ten or less — will show you clear, recurring themes and patterns that can be used to validate user needs:

1. How do you define a successful work day? What has to happen in order for you to feel good when you leave?

2. Does that definition of success (and your stated goals) change from day to day — or from week to week? Are there certain times of year where what you need to accomplish changes?

3. What are the top three things standing in the way of you accomplishing your goals or having a successful workday?

4. What are the biggest problems, obstacles or inefficiencies you deal with? Why do you think these things happen?

5. Did you do have this same role at other organizations you’ve worked for? Was it better, worse or different – and why (or how)?

6. Did you perform these tasks in the same way at any of these other organizations? Was it better, worse or different – and why (or how)?

7. What frustrates you most about this? Why?

Notes:
(1) The full article provides the rationale for each question.
(2) The first two questions probe what users are trying to achieve, what defines success for your users. In other words, they help you investigate the Job To Be Done. The third and fourth questions probe the context and challenges. As a result, these questions are helpful in completing a Job Outline.
(3) See also How to interview customers to get great product insights and How to learn about your customers.

The heart of any growth strategy is core product value

Excerpt from A Dozen Things I’ve Learned from Chamath Palihapitiya About Investing and Business by Tren Griffin:

Users are only ever in three states — they’ve never heard about it; they’ve tried it; and they use it. What you’re managing is state change. So the framework is, what causes these changes? The answer should be rooted more in preference, choice and psychology than in some quantitative thing.

What I want to hear about is the three most difficult and hard problems that any consumer product has to deal with. How to get people on the front door? How to get them to an ‘A-ha’ moment as quickly as possible? And then how do you deliver core product value as often as possible?

Notes:
(1) “The answer should be rooted more in preference, choice and psychology than in some quantitative thing.” Another way of putting this: the core of any growth strategy must be a great product which helps your customers achieve a valuable Job To Be Done in a compelling way. See Is your product a “must-have” according to this definition?
(2) Cf. The only way to build a massive business.
(3) Cf. Don’t be satisfied with sales, seek love.

How NOT to start a presentation

Edited excerpt from 8 Bad Habits That Ruin Good Presentations by Geoffrey James:

Don’t start with an apology. You’re late, your equipment malfunctions, you don’t have your materials, or whatever. You apologize in advance for how this might affect your presentation. This is a mistake because an apology sets a negative tone that may affect the entire meeting and makes you seem like a victim. Nobody wants to do business with a victim. Instead, start on an upbeat note, as if nothing is wrong. This communicates that you’re cool under pressure–the opposite of being a victim.

Don’t make personal excuses. You downgrade the audience’s expectations by offering an excuse in advance for your poor performance. (E.g., “I’m so tired”; “I got in late last night.”) This is a mistake because you’re giving yourself an excuse so you won’t feel so bad if you fail. Plus, nobody wants to hear you whine about your problems. Instead, regardless of how you’re feeling, show enthusiasm for being there and make your best effort.

Notes:
(1) Maybe better to start with a story.
(2) And then end with love?

The four steps to great product design

Edited excerpt from The Dribbblisation Of Design by Paul Adams:

Design is a multi layered process. In my experience, there is an optimal order to how you move through the layers:

1. Outcome. Start with the intended outcome. What will the thing you’re designing make easier or better for people? Most projects without a clearly defined intended outcome don’t end well. At Intercom, we work with Clay Christensen’s Jobs framework for product design. We frame every design problem in a Job, focusing on the triggering event or situation, the motivation and goal, and the intended outcome: When _____ , I want to _____ , so I can _____ .

2. Structure. Next, design the system. Work out the required components to meet the intended outcome, and map the relationship between them.

3. Interaction. After the outcome and system are figured out, design the interaction details. What are the microinteractions? The sequence of behavior and events? What are the UI components, and how will people interact with or manipulate them? How will things move, change or animate? Revisit the system, evolve it to match the interactions. Keep iterating.

4. Visual. Once the outcome, system and interactions are well defined and working (ideally prototyped), design the visual details. Make it look and feel beautiful, enjoyable. Now it’s time for beautiful grids, color, typography, iconography.

I see designer after designer focus on the fourth layer without really considering the others.

Notes:
(1) Re. “Outcome” as the first stage of product design: see Why product managers should frame every product task as a Job To Be Done.
(2) Re. “we frame every design problem in a Job”: see How to describe your customers’ “Job To Be Done” using a Job Outline.
(3) Cf. Five questions to ensure product designers focus on the Job To Be Done.

Why product managers should optimize design for older users

Edited excerpt from The Problem With Flat Design, According To A UX Expert by Kelsey Campbell-Dollaghan:

Kate Meyer, a user experience expert at Nielsen Norman Group, examined how different users approach flat interfaces. Younger users liked flat websites a lot more than their older counterparts. Older users said the flattest website designs were “boring,” while younger subjects described them as “professional.”

However, while young people seemed faster at navigating the designs, they also indicated they didn’t really understand the UI intuitively. For the most part they seemed to have pretty much no idea what they were doing. “It’s hard when you think something’s a link and it’s not. And you have to figure out how to get it another way,” one user said. Young people didn’t necessarily “get” flat designs. They were just better at quickly testing where and how to get what they wanted in the face of click uncertainty.

Paying attention to the older users might help to solve flat design’s usability issues sooner. Some technology companies are moving to “inclusive design”, the notion that by designing for ignored or underserved users—including the elderly or disabled—products will become better for all. It has quietly spurred some of the biggest technological leaps of our time. The typewriter, email, and even the telephone evolved out of designs for the blind and deaf.

Notes:
(1) Kate Meyer argues here that focusing on older users improves user experience for everybody. Perhaps that’s because older users are less able to tolerate “click uncertainty” and other user interface failures.
(2) Older users are also becoming more important in their own right, as demographic changes raise the percentage of older people in the population. And some services — such as investing sites like Seeking Alpha — appeal disproportionately to older users.
(3) The most obvious way to reduce “click uncertainty” is to ensure that what is clickable is obvious and differentiated from what isn’t clickable. (The most common error is to present links in the same color as non-clickable text.)
(4) See also Web design for seniors.

How to make your talk or presentation gripping and memorable

Excerpt from How To Tell If Someone Is Lying: 5 Research-Backed Secrets by Eric Barker:

Your brain is wired to respond to stories. Neuroscience research shows nothing beats a story when it comes to convincing you of something.

Keith Quesenberry at Johns Hopkins reviewed over 100 Super Bowl ads to see what the most effective ones had in common. The answer? They told a story.

Notes:
(1) Contrast this with the more functional approach to public speaking — focus on the change you want to catalyze, keep presentations tight, and avoid “and’s”.
(2) Story telling has greater emotional resonance; cf. By the end of your talk or presentation, you should be talking love.

The three most important things for seed stage startups to get right

Edited excerpt from Product Thinking isn’t the next big thing in UX design. It’s the only thing by Mark Maloney:

You need to actually understand the problem before you look to solve it. And you need to solve it with a distinct point-of-view.

Notes:
(1) Although this was written for UX designers, I think it applies more broadly to early stage startups.
(2) Seed stage startups need to get three things right: (i) Ensure there’s a real problem  (= Job To Be Done). (ii) Be clear about the unique focus, approach or insight you bring to solving that problem. (iii) Ensure you have a basic business model that will generate profits, based on what works in other businesses.
(3) What seed stage startups don’t need to get right immediately, because this is what you’ll be working on for the next few years: (i) You don’t need to nail down all the details of your product. (ii) You don’t need a detailed financial forecast, including pricing and margins.
(4) Re. “you need to solve it with a distinct point-of-view”: See the questions about competitive advantage in Six simple questions to test product-market fit and competitive advantage (from Y Combinator’s application form).

Is this the right goal for seed-stage startups?

The final slide from an investor deck sent by a startup founder:

Financing

Raising: $1.5 million

Deliverable: MVP and 10,000 delighted beta users who would recommend the product.

Notes:
(1) Love the clarity: “Here’s how much we want to raise, and here, in one short sentence, is what we’ll deliver for that budget.”
(2) Note that the key deliverable is a product of demonstrated quality — an MVP with high net promotor score, validated by a sufficient number of users.
(3) Setting net promotor score as an explicit goal stops the company from trying to scale before the product is good enough. See The most fatal mistake to avoid as a startup.

How to answer questions after pitching your product or startup

Edited excerpt from How To Demo Your Startup by Jason Calacanis:

Short answers are best.

When taking questions about your product answer questions shortly. This is a very challenging thing for many people–including myself–to do. If you’re like me, you’ve probably thought out your startup’s issues a thousand different ways. Answer the question with the most concise answer.

Notes:
(1) In Nick Morgan’s words, “Too many speakers dump way too much information on the audience. Restraint is key.” See: For speakers: three tips to avoid tiring your audience.
(2) For more on demos to VCs and investors, see: (i) How to demo your startup, and (ii) A better way to demo your product.
(3) For more on demos to potential customers, see: (i) Demos can win sales if you do them like this, and (ii) How to demo your product to a potential customer.

Is group chat a constant distraction for your employees?

Edited excerpt from Is group chat making you sweat? by Jason Fried:

We’ve been using group chat at 37signals/Basecamp for 10 years. I’ve seen the distraction, anxiety, stress, and misunderstanding group chat can cause. Those are things that can really damage people and an organization.

I believe attention is one of your most precious resources. If something else controls my attention, that something else controls what I’m capable of. I also believe your full attention is required to do great work. So when something like a pile of group chats, and the expectations that come along with them, systematically steals that resource from me, I consider it a potential enemy.

That said, I still think group chat is an important tool in the communications toolbox. I just don’t think it’s the go-to tool. I think it’s the exception tool.

Notes:
(1) In the full article, Jason Fried demonstrates why group chat leads to constant distraction and shallowness. If you use (or are thinking of using) Slack or Hipchat as your startup’s primary communication tool, you’ll want to read it.
(2) Cf. Samuel Hulick’s critique of Slack in What happens when you mistake user engagement for customer success.
(3) Cf. If you want to get more done, stop doing these things.
(4) Note the extreme contrast between group chat and this approach to email.

Automate and outsource everything

Edited excerpt from Five things I will do different for my next startup by Jeff Haynie:

Automate and outsource everything. OK, maybe not everything, but everything that is possible — which is a lot more than you probably think. We did a great job at Appcelerator with this — but we could have done better.

You’ll want to spend all your calories on things that you do best, different, uniquely and the thing that makes you and your business valuable. Trust me, that’s not your website (which of course, is not to say that’s not important). Sure, maybe your dev can do the corporate website by herself over the weekend much cheaper than finding an agency to do it or a contractor. It will seem and be cheaper (and maybe faster) in the short-term. But it will really cost you in so many areas.

Same with systems. Maybe one of your devs could just setup Gitlab on your own server and that’s a little bit cheaper than paying for the $7/month for a small plan at Github. But trust me, it’s not. It’s just not worth it.

Try and automate and outsource things that aren’t core to your mission. Keep your calories focused on activities that will create muscle — and don’t do anything (if you can avoid it) else.

Now, like other recommendations, this isn’t an absolute and sometimes this can conflict with “burn less”. But generally, if it seems cheaper in the short-term, make sure you consider the long term ROI and other non-financial metrics (such as distraction).

Notes:
(1) For practical advice about how to outsource, see How to hire someone to handle outsourcing for your startup.
(2) Cf. Saying “no” to good ideas.

How to avoid being influenced by others’ negativity

Edited excerpt from 23 Ways to Protect Your Positive Mood from Negative Co-Workers by Laura Tong:

1. Take the lead with upbeat topics. By going first you’ll have more control to ensure the tone stays positive.

2. Avoid eye contact during negative conversations. You’ll make less connection with them and their words will carry less weight.

3. Don’t gossip. Talking about people behind their back has been shown to lower your self-esteem, even when you are not being overly critical.

4. Laugh in the face of negativity. Smile and diffuse that negativity. Refuse to take them and their gloomy view of life or your workplace to heart.

5. Read them the riot act. Explain to negative co-workers that you have a serious allergic reaction to negativity.

Notes:
(1) On the damage of negativity and why you should avoid it, see Why venting and complaining are bad for your health and the health of your company.
(2) Cf. You can train yourself to think positively.
(3) An excellent, positive question to ask to people: The right question to ask to motivate people.

Four qualities to look for when interviewing a product manager

Edited excerpt from This Is Why I Never Hire Product Managers by David Cancel:

I try to never hire someone who has been a product manager before. I’ve never seen a correlation with past experience and future success when it comes to product managers. Instead, there are a set of patterns we look for when hiring product managers:

1. Are they truly a product junkie? Are they the first to be playing around with new products? Are they telling me about some product I don’t know about? Do they know about more products than me? And do they have passion around this? I love to have candidates show me their phone or desktop to see which apps they are using, which new products they are testing.

2. Are they curious? Are they settling for yes or questioning why? Do they want to learn from others? What ideas do they have for products? How would they make them better? Pick a product on the spot and ask them to show you how they use it, what they’d change and how they would improve it.

3. How do they work everyday? What do they use from a process standpoint? Trello? Evernote? ProdPad? The best PM’s are always trying new things and finding ways to improve when it comes to process and organization.

4. Do they have a customer-driven mindset? It’s the PMs job to understand the customer better than nearly everyone else. PMs should be talking to the customer the most at your company other than support. Can they help engineering and design get closer to the customer?

Two things don’t matter: Technical ability, and dashboards, slide decks and Excel. Looking at data all day is not what being a PM is about.

Notes:
(1) Cf. The ideal personality type for product managers.
(2) Re. “I’ve never seen a correlation with past experience and future success”: cf. Don’t hire based on past experience.
(3) Re. “Are they curious?”: cf. How to test job candidates for “learning agility”.
(4) Re. “Do they have a customer-driven mindset?”: do they focus on the Job To Be Done?
(5) Re. “Dashboards don’t matter… looking at data all day is not what being a PM is about”: Do you agree with that?

Why venting and complaining are bad for your health and the health of your company

Edited excerpt from Complaining Is Terrible for You According to Science by Jessica Stillman:

Not only do repeated negative thoughts make it easier to think yet more negative thoughts, they also make it more likely that negative thoughts will occur to you just randomly walking down the street. Being consistently negative starts to push your personality towards the negative.

Hanging out with negative people does much the same. When we see someone experiencing an emotion (be it anger, sadness, happiness, etc), our brain ‘tries out’ that same emotion to imagine what the other person is going through. And it does this by attempting to fire the same synapses in your own brain so that you can attempt to relate to the emotion you’re observing.

“When your brain is firing off these synapses of anger, you’re weakening your immune system, raising your blood pressure, increasing your risk of heart disease, obesity and diabetes, and a plethora of other negative ailments,” Psych Pedia author Steven Parton says.

The culprit is the stress hormone cortisol. When you’re negative, you release it, and elevated levels of the stuff, “interfere with learning and memory, lower immune function and bone density, increase weight gain, blood pressure, cholesterol, and heart disease.”

Notes:
(1) Cf. “I think the mind is like a forest floor: the more you walk paths the deeper they get and the easier it is to walk them again.” — from You can train yourself to think positively.
(2) Cf. Ideas spread inside a company due to positive energy; 8 ways to increase it.

Why product managers shouldn’t overrate simplicity

Edited excerpt from Simple just isn’t that important by David Heinemeier Hansson:

“Simple” is just one of the many qualities we can use to evaluate products, and it is by no means the most important. Simple is overrated!

Here are but a few qualities I’d take over simple: Useful. Clear. Fun. Satisfying. Inspiring. Endearing.

Notes:
(1) Cf. Frictionless vs. minimalist product design.
(2) Cf. Minimum viable product vs minimum acceptable product.

How startups can continue to innovate over long time periods

Edited excerpt from a Y Combinator interview with Michael Moritz:

Most organizations are capable of maintaining a consistent level of exceptional performance through a year, or five years, maybe ten years. Very few are able to do it over multiple decades. How have we done it?

1. Yesterday is irrelevant. The best leaders want to make sure that their product is fresh, that it changes with the times; that they never rest on their laurels, or get complacent; that they always have an element of insecurity about feeling that they can always get eaten by a competitor, and that past successes don’t mean all that much. All your past success is yesterday, and it’s irrelevant to the future.

2. Maintain a fresh team. You have to focus on the team. Field the best team at any one time, no matter how long people have been with you. Don’t be unfair, or ruthless, or harsh; but detached, objective and clinical about the performance of each individual. No matter how well they’ve performed in the past, if their heart is no longer in it, if they no longer have the burning desire to compete, it’s time for them to move on. Bring in young people who have zest, ambition, energy.

3. Change with the market. Stay alert to market opportunities. When we started a long time ago we were just here in Menlo Park, but the world of technology has changed, because of what’s happening principally in China. So about 12, 13 years ago, we started a business in China because we felt that, over time, it was going to be increasingly important for Sequoia, for the companies that we have investments in in Silicon Valley, to really understand the Chinese market because of what was going to happen there.

Notes:
(1) Re. Maintain a fresh team — for practical advice, see: How to hire – drill a well before you need a drink.
(2) Re. Change with the market — contrast that with The question that Amazon answers to set its strategy.

How to identify an A-player in an interview

Edited excerpt from This Is How You Identify A-Players (In About 10 Minutes) During An Interview by Mitchell Harper:

I sat down earlier today and thought about all of the A-players I’ve been fortunate enough to hire over the years at my five previous companies, and came up with seven questions you can use in your interview process to give you a much better chance of finding and hiring them:

Q1 Have they been promoted at least once in a previous role?

Q2 Have they had to lead a big project in a previous role? How did they handle it?

Q3 Is this the same role as a previous job or is it somewhat/completely different?

Q4 Can they speak about your company and tell you what they like and what they might change?

Q5 Are they confident without being cocky?

Q6 Are they committed to continual learning? Can they prove it?

Q7 How would you rate the quality and quantity of questions they ask YOU during the interview?

Notes:
(1) The rationale behind each question is provided in the full article.
(2) Re. “Are they committed to continual learning? Can they prove it?”, see How to test job candidates for “learning agility” and 5 testable qualities that determine a candidate’s potential.
(3) Cf. Mark Zuckerberg’s hiring rule.

Build value for your users

Edited excerpt from How We Got off the Addiction to Venture Capital and Created Our Own Way to Profits by Rafat Ali:

We became obsessed with the idea of our utility value to users who swear by us. This is a two-step test, which essentially says this: How much of a personal or professional utility value do your users ascribe to your brand? And how indispensable are you to the ecosystem you exist in? While media companies focused on scale-for-scale-sake talk about unique visitors to their sites, we talk about unique residents.

There are people who build media companies for valuation, then there are others who build media brands for value. Internalizing that difference has made all the difference to us.

All of this hides an ugly unspoken truth about media in general: that it is disposable, in so many ways. The key is to move towards making yourself non-disposable, by adding enough value.

Notes:
(1) Focusing on genuine value creation creates a pathway to subscription revenue. It’s what we did at Seeking Alpha — started free while focusing on genuine value creation for investors, then added subscription products. See: Charging for content will only be successful if this condition is fulfilled.
(2) Cf. The content business: Entertainment, or helping users make decisions?